Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.
PHP divides the operators in the following groups:
The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.
+ | Addition | $x + $y | Sum of $x and $y |
- | Subtraction | $x - $y | Difference of $x and $y |
* | Multiplication | $x * $y | Product of $x and $y |
/ | Division | $x / $y | Quotient of $x and $y |
% | Modulus | $x % $y | Remainder of $x divided by $y |
** | Exponentiation | $x ** $y | Result of raising $x to the $y'th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6) |
The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.
The basic assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.
Assignment | Same as... | Description |
---|---|---|
x = y | x = y | The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right |
x += y | x = x + y | Addition |
x -= y | x = x - y | Subtraction |
x *= y | x = x * y | Multiplication |
x /= y | x = x / y | Division |
x %= y | x = x % y | Modulus |
The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):
Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|
== | Equal | $x == $y | Returns true if $x is equal to $y |
=== | Identical | $x === $y | Returns true if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type |
!= | Not equal | $x != $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y |
<> | Not equal | $x <> $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y |
!== | Not identical | $x !== $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type |
> | Greater than | $x > $y | Returns true if $x is greater than $y |
< | Less than | $x < $y | Returns true if $x is less than $y |
>= | Greater than or equal to | $x >= $y | Returns true if $x is greater than or equal to $y |
<= | Less than or equal to | $x <= $y | Returns true if $x is less than or equal to $y |
The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable's value.
The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable's value.
Operator | Name | Description |
---|---|---|
++$x | Pre-increment | Increments $x by one, then returns $x |
$x++ | Post-increment | Returns $x, then increments $x by one |
--$x | Pre-decrement | Decrements $x by one, then returns $x |
$x-- | Post-decrement | Returns $x, then decrements $x by one |
The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.
Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|
and | And | $x and $y | True if both $x and $y are true |
or | Or | $x or $y | True if either $x or $y is true |
xor | Xor | $x xor $y | True if either $x or $y is true, but not both |
&& | And | $x && $y | True if both $x and $y are true |
|| | Or | $x || $y | True if either $x or $y is true |
! | Not | !$x | True if $x is not true |
PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.
Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|
. | Concatenation | $txt1 . $txt2 | Concatenation of $txt1 and $txt2 |
.= | Concatenation assignment | $txt1 .= $txt2 | Appends $txt2 to $txt1 |
The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.
Operator | Name | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|
+ | Union | $x + $y | Union of $x and $y |
== | Equality | $x == $y | Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs |
=== | Identity | $x === $y | Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types |
!= | Inequality | $x != $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y |
<> | Inequality | $x <> $y | Returns true if $x is not equal to $y |
!== | Non-identity | $x !== $y | Returns true if $x is not identical to $y |
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