Codeigniter 4 : Application Structure
21 Nov-2021

To get the most out of CodeIgniter, you need to understand how the application is structured, by default, and what you can change to meet the needs of your application.

Default Directories

A fresh install has six directories: /app/system/public/writable/tests and possibly /docs. Each of these directories has a very specific part to play.


The app directory is where all of your application code lives. This comes with a default directory structure that works well for many applications. The following folders make up the basic contents:

    /Config         Stores the configuration files
    /Controllers    Controllers determine the program flow
    /Database       Stores the database migrations and seeds files
    /Filters        Stores filter classes that can run before and after controller
    /Helpers        Helpers store collections of standalone functions
    /Language       Multiple language support reads the language strings from here
    /Libraries      Useful classes that don't fit in another category
    /Models         Models work with the database to represent the business entities.
    /ThirdParty     ThirdParty libraries that can be used in application
    /Views          Views make up the HTML that is displayed to the client.

Because the app directory is already namespaced, you should feel free to modify the structure of this directory to suit your application’s needs. For example, you might decide to start using the Repository pattern and Entity Models to work with your data. In this case, you could rename the Models directory to Repositories, and add a new Entities directory.

All files in this directory live under the App namespace, though you are free to change that in app/Config/Constants.php.


This directory stores the files that make up the framework, itself. While you have a lot of flexibility in how you use the application directory, the files in the system directory should never be modified. Instead, you should extend the classes, or create new classes, to provide the desired functionality.

All files in this directory live under the CodeIgniter namespace.


The public folder holds the browser-accessible portion of your web application, preventing direct access to your source code. It contains the main .htaccess file, index.php, and any application assets that you add, like CSS, javascript, or images.

This folder is meant to be the “web root” of your site, and your web server would be configured to point to it.


This directory holds any directories that might need to be written to in the course of an application’s life. This includes directories for storing cache files, logs, and any /uploads a user might send. You should add any other directories that your application will need to write to here. This allows you to keep your other primary directories non-writable as an added security measure.


This directory is set up to hold your test files. The _support directory holds various mock classes and other utilities that you can use while writing your tests. This directory does not need to be transferred to your production servers.


If this directory is part of your project, it holds a local copy of the CodeIgniter4 User Guide.

Modifying Directory Locations

If you’ve relocated any of the main directories, you can change the configuration settings inside app/Config/Paths.php.


GTA Trilogy’s following huge fix
News 01 Dec-2021

Rockstar’s next Title Update for Grand Theft Auto: The Trilogy – The Definitive Edition looks to address a huge list of issues with the buggy remasters.

The game has had a rough launch, and many of the fixes appear to clean up some of the more meme-worthy problems with the games. A lot of the fixes are about rain. Many spelling errors have apparently been fixed. I spotted two fixes for “a hole in the game world” in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City – The Definitive Edition. There are also two fixes for CJ’s face obscuring the camera in Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas – The Definitive Edition, which (sadly) may address the absolutely incredible bug shown in this video:


The patch also brings “stability improvements,” fixes some textures, and adds a cinematic camera mode. You can read the full list of fixes for Title Update 1.03 on Rockstar’s website. Rockstar says the update is now available on PS4, PS5, Xbox Series X / S, Xbox One, and PC and that it will be available for the Nintendo Switch “in the coming days.”

Rockstar apologized for the rocky launch a little over a week after the game’s November 11th release date. “The updated versions of these classic games did not launch in a state that meets our own standards of quality, or the standards our fans have come to expect,” the company said. “We have ongoing plans to address the technical issues and to improve each game going forward.”


System Requirements

OS: Windows 10 64-bit
Processor: Intelregistered Coretm i5-6600K / AMD FX-6300
Memory: 8GB
Graphics: Nvidia GeForce GTX 760 2GB / AMD Radeon R9 280 3GB
Disk: 45GB

OS: Windows 10 64-bit
Processor: Intelregistered Coretm i7-2700K / AMD Ryzen 5 2600
Memory: 16GB
Graphics: Nvidia GeForce GTX 970 4GB / AMD Radeon RX 570 4GB
Disk: 45GB

Install Instructions

You need to own the game first! (BUY)

- Download This Torrent
- Open Rockstar Game Launcher
- Select install Now
- Select the location where you've downloaded the torrent.
- Then wait for the launcher to verify the files and you're good to go



Tracking Android users DuckDuckGo tool is supposed to prevent apps.

DuckDuckGo’s new tool aims to prevent apps from tracking Android users, first reported by Wired. The tool, called App Tracking Protection, is essentially a watered-down version of Apple’s App Tracking Transparency feature, which gives users the choice to opt-out of data tracking within apps.

However, DuckDuckGo’s tool hasn’t been rolled out as part of an update to all Android phones, nor is it available as a separate download — it’s built into DuckDuckGo’s privacy-focused browser app, but works across your device. In a post on its blog, the company says that the tool will block “trackers it identifies in other apps from third-party companies.”


Once App Tracking Protection is enabled, it will run in the background as you use your phone. The tool recognizes when an app is about to send data to a third-party tracker, and will then prevent the app from taking your information.

DuckDuckGo says that it’s “continually working to identify and protect against new trackers,” which means that your data should be kept away from any new trackers that crop up. From the DuckDuckGo app, you should also be able to see a real-time view of trackers that the tool has blocked, along with where your data would’ve been going.

The company says that although its App Tracking Protection tool isn’t a virtual private network (VPN), your device will behave as if it is one. “This is because App Tracking Protection uses a local ‘VPN connection’ which means that it works its magic right on your smartphone,” DuckDuckGo explains in its post. “However, App Tracking Protection is different from VPNs because it never routes app data through an external server.”

While conducting its own test, DuckDuckGo found that more than 96 percent of some of the most popular free Android apps have third-party trackers that most users are unaware of. The company also discovered that 87 percent of these apps send user data to Google, while 68 percent send data to Facebook.

Right now the tool is in beta, but you can join the private waitlist (you won’t have to enter any personal information to do so). To sign up, download DuckDuckGo from the Google Play Store, and open the app. Hit “Settings” followed by “App Tracking Protection” in the “Privacy Section.” From there, choose “Join the Private Waitlist.” DuckDuckGo says it's gradually introducing the feature to more people every week.

As pointed out by Wired, DuckDuckGo obviously doesn’t have the power to change the internal configuration of Android devices like Google does, which means that DuckDuckGo’s tool still can’t fully replace Apple’s. The same is true if you combine DuckDuckGo’s blocker and the privacy settings already in Android devices — Apple’s stringent App Tracking Transparency tools essentially uproot the advertising system on iPhones, reportedly costing social platforms $10 billion as a result.

In response to Apple’s tracking tool, Google started making it more difficult for apps to collect data on users by restricting them from accessing users’ Advertising IDs after they’ve opted out of tracking. Android’s looser policies may be more app-friendly, but its built-in privacy protections still fall short of Apple’s.


Collected From The Verge

Samsung Galaxy S21 FE

The yet-to-be-announced Samsung Galaxy S21 Fan Edition (FE) has become the victim of another leak, according to a report by Android Police. Just like its S20 FE predecessor, which serves as the affordable counterpart to the S20, the S21 FE is supposed to be the budget-friendly alternative to the flagship S21.

Marketing images leaked by Coinbrs show several images of the device, and it, unsurprisingly, closely resembles the S21. The images show us much of what we saw in the S21 FE’s user manual that was previously leaked in September.

As noted by Coinbrs, the device will reportedly have three cameras on its rear: a main 64MP sensor, a depth sensor, and an ultra-wide-angle sensor. On the front, it’s said to have a hole-punch notch housing a 32MP selfie camera, along with an in-display fingerprint scanner.

When compared to the S21 base model’s 6.2-inch display, the S21 FE is rumored to have a slightly bigger screen than its premium counterpart, sporting a 6.4-inch FHD+ 120Hz AMOLED display. Coinbrs says that it may also have a larger 4,500mAh battery that supports 15W fast charging — a small upgrade from the S21’s 4,000mAh battery. In terms of processing power, Coinbrs expects it to either come with the Snapdragon 888 or the Exynos 2100 chip depending on the market, as well as up to 12GB of RAM and 256GB of internal storage.

In June, we weren’t sure there was going to be an S21 FE at all — the ongoing chip shortage spurred rumors that Samsung may be halting the phone’s production. The S21 FE still hasn’t been officially confirmed by Samsung, but Coinbrs claims that the company will officially reveal the phone on January 4th.


CCNA2 Chapter 1
Course - 12 Jan-2021


Exploring the Network

§Explain how multiple networks are used in everyday life.

§Explain the topologies and devices used in a small to medium-sized
business network.

§Explain the basic characteristics of a network that supports
communication in a small to medium-sized business.

§Explain trends in networking that will affect the use of networks in
small to medium-sized businesses.
Thank you
Chapter 2 will be soon