Files of Autoloading
14 Dec-2021

Every application consists of a large number of classes in many different locations. The framework provides classes for core functionality. Your application will have a number of libraries, models, and other entities to make it work. You might have third-party classes that your project is using. Keeping track of where every single file is, and hard-coding that location into your files in a series of requires() is a massive headache and very error-prone. That’s where autoloaders come in.

CodeIgniter provides a very flexible autoloader that can be used with very little configuration. It can locate individual non-namespaced classes, namespaced classes that adhere to PSR4 autoloading directory structures, and will even attempt to locate classes in common directories (like Controllers, Models, etc).

For performance improvement, the core CodeIgniter components have been added to the classmap.

The autoloader works great by itself, but can also work with other autoloaders, like Composer, or even your own custom autoloaders, if needed. Because they’re all registered through spl_autoload_register, they work in sequence and don’t get in each other’s way.

The autoloader is always active, being registered with spl_autoload_register() at the beginning of the framework’s execution.


Initial configuration is done in /app/Config/Autoload.php. This file contains two primary arrays: one for the classmap, and one for PSR4-compatible namespaces.


The recommended method for organizing your classes is to create one or more namespaces for your application’s files. This is most important for any business-logic related classes, entity classes, etc. The psr4 array in the configuration file allows you to map the namespace to the directory those classes can be found in:

$psr4 = [
    'App'         => APPPATH,
    'CodeIgniter' => SYSTEMPATH,

The key of each row is the namespace itself. This does not need a trailing slash. If you use double-quotes to define the array, be sure to escape the backward slash. That means that it would be My\\App, not My\App. The value is the location to the directory the classes can be found in. They should have a trailing slash.

By default, the application folder is namespace to the App namespace. While you are not forced to namespace the controllers, libraries, or models in the application directory, if you do, they will be found under the App namespace. You may change this namespace by editing the /app/Config/Constants.php file and setting the new namespace value under the APP_NAMESPACE setting:

define('APP_NAMESPACE', 'App');

You will need to modify any existing files that are referencing the current namespace.



The classmap is used extensively by CodeIgniter to eke the last ounces of performance out of the system by not hitting the file-system with extra is_file() calls. You can use the classmap to link to third-party libraries that are not namespaced:

$classmap = [
    'Markdown' => APPPATH . 'third_party/markdown.php'

The key of each row is the name of the class that you want to locate. The value is the path to locate it at.

Composer Support

Composer support is automatically initialized by default. By default, it looks for Composer’s autoload file at ROOTPATH . 'vendor/autoload.php'. If you need to change the location of that file for any reason, you can modify the value defined in Config\Constants.php.


Thank You



Top 10 Programming Languages
News 12 Dec-2021

Well, you don’t have to worry anymore… We’ve put together this list of the top 10 programming languages of the future.

1. JavaScript

The number one language to be utilized (to keep being utilized), JavaScript is a high-level, multi-paradigm dynamic programming language that will remain the most popular in the world for many more years.

Mainly it is used for developing interactive and feature-rich web applications but can also be utilized for creating other software that runs anywhere: servers, browsers, mobile devices, micro-controllers, etc.

2. Python

Being the most learned at the moment, Python will soon increase its utilization popularity as well. Due to elegant and simple syntax, it is considered to be the easiest language to learn and is used for teaching programming.

It is widely used for machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), data science as well as for mathematics, statistics, computational science. Being both simple and powerful, Python allows streamlining the development process of robust applications: web or mobile.

3. PHP

Having a large open-source community and being widely used by the industry giants like Facebook or WordPress, PHP remains on-demand even though its popularity slowly decreases.

It is a general-purpose dynamic scripting language that was created for building dynamic web applications. Later the functionality of PHP expanded but it is still mainly used for web software development while constantly losing its positions to JavaScript.

Despite the competition from different server-side environments like Node.js and Python, PHP remains the star of the sector. And the credit of this popularity goes to the frameworks that make it a perfect fit for scalable and robust app development and the fact that 83% of websites on the Internet are based on this backend programming language.

4. Swift


Swift has not only become the preferred language for iOS development, superseding Objective-C but has also emerged as a trending programming language 2020 with a steep rise in its popularity as noted in the Google Trends graph below.Introduced back in WWDC 2014, Swift programming language is faster, easy to learn, secure, and has various other features that make it a perfect language for developing apps for iPhones, iPads, and macOS. Due to such features, it is considered as a highly efficient and flexible language.

5. R

R programming language is one of the most commonly used programming languages for Data Analysis and Machine Learning.

R provides an excellent framework and built-in libraries to develop powerful Machine Learning algorithms. R is also used for general statistical computing as well as graphics. R has been well adopted by enterprises.

Those who wish to join “Analytics” team of a large organization should definitely learn R.

6. Java

Despite similar names, Java has little in common with JavaScript.

It is an object-oriented, interpreted programming language that was the first one allowing you to write the code once and run it anywhere.

This language can be used for the development of applications of all sizes both web and mobile as well as for developing enterprise-level applications and working with Big Data.

7. Go

Go programming language has also made its entrance into the list of 2020’s top programming languages.

The language, with its concise and easy-to-embrace syntax and faster compilation characteristics, has not just become the favourite of SoundCloud, Google, Netflix, and other such popular brands. But, it has also proven to be one of the best options to get higher salaries.

8. C++

C++ appeared as an improved version of the C language introducing object-oriented features.

It offers a lot of compilers and libraries to build powerful and reliable solutions that can handle high performance and rich functionality. C++ easily adapts to ecosystem or hardware changes and is a perfect option for cloud computing as well as for game development.

It is also one of the most difficult languages to learn.

9. C#

Developed by Microsoft, C# is a general, flexible, and open-source, object-oriented programming (OOP) language. It is primarily used for backend development, game development, web/desktop applications, and mobile application development for Windows phones. It runs on the .NET framework.

C# is widely preferred thanks to its ease-of-use and well-built architecture. It has a dedicated .NET Core machine learning platform – ML.NET – to cater to Machine Learning development needs. There’s also Accord.NET and ML-Agents that allows .NET developers to develop unique ML applications. 

10. Typescript

TypeScript, a super-set of JavaScript is an object-oriented language that was introduced to extend the capabilities of JS.

The language makes it easy for developers to write and maintain codes. TypeScript offers a complete description of each component of the code and can be used for developing large applications with a strict syntax and fewer errors.

Further, it is well-structured and easy to learn. Its extended toolbox makes application development quick. Owing to the benefits it offers, TypeScript is expected to supersede JS in 2020, making it one of the most sought-after programming languages in the future.

FREE Best CPU Temperature Monitor Tools

CPU Temp Monitor Tools In 2021 :: Best Tools

#1. HWMonitor

HWMonitor is a great tool that gives users the versatility to not only check their CPU temperatures but also allows them to monitor a whole host of other hardware features too. With this easy-to-use tool, you’ll be able to check your GPU temps, your fan speeds, storage devices, and a tonne of other hardware outputs too.  So, if you want a very simple and effective monitoring tool, HWMonitor is a great place to start.


#2. Core Temp

Core Temp is a simple, compact, and powerful tool that can monitor processor temperature and some other important information. It supports Windows OS and Intel, AMD, & VIA x86 based processors.

All the major processor manufacturers have included Digital Thermal Sensors in their product which gives more accurate and higher resolution temperature information. Temperature readings will be correct as there will be a direct collection of data from Digital Thermal Sensors.


  • Core Temp will let you know the temperature of each core of every processor in the system.
  • Temperature fluctuations can be monitored in real-time with varying workloads.
  • It provides a mobile app for Android and Windows phones so that you can monitor your systems while you are out of the office or home.


#3. Open Hardware Monitor

Open Hardware Monitor is pretty similar to HWMonitor, offering similar features and monitoring options. Unlike Core Temp, Open Hardware Monitor offers a bunch of additional monitoring features, including clock speeds, load, and power consumption to name but a few. You can also keep eye on your GPU as well, with temps, load, fan speed, and clock speed on offer.

Open Hardware Monitor is a great alternative for those that don’t fancy using HWMonitor, bringing plenty of versatility to the table.



#4. Speed Fan

If you’re a fan of the old-school retro styling, Speed Fan might be the CPU temperature monitor for you. Despite it having a fairly basic design, it offers some pretty advanced features – for monitoring software anyway. Users will be able to set fan speeds based on the temperature of their CPU, enabling them to set a more efficient fan pattern than what you’d get out of the box.

As with all these CPU temp monitors, you can also check CPU temp, GPU temp, and overall system temp with Speed Fan.


#8) Real Temp

Real Temp is a tool for CPU temperature monitoring. It is designed for all Intel Single Core, Dual Core, QuadCore, and Core i7 processors. There are Digital Thermal Sensors (DTS) on every core of these processors. These sensors will report temperature data relative to TJMax. This program stands on the temperature data gathered using a Fuke 62 IR Thermometer.



  • Real Temp can read temperature information from all Intel Core-based processors.
  • It can individually calibrate Real Temp for each core of your CPU.
  • Your DTS sensors will get checked by test sensors for the signs of problems.
  • It will keep the track of minimum and maximum temperatures along with full logging features.
  • It provides a high-temperature alarm and shutdown feature based on the CPU or NVIDIA GPU temperature.



#6. CPU Thermometer

Up next is CPU Thermometer, an extremely simple CPU temperature monitor which does exactly what it says on the tin. It offers a style that is very similar to HWMonitor and Open Hardware Monitor. However, it doesn’t come with the functionality of GPU temp measurements.

Like some of the other CPU-only temp monitor tools in this guide, CPU Thermometer gives you clock speeds, CPU core temps, load percentages, and overall power consumption too.


#7. Speccy

Speccy is the first CPU monitoring tool on this list that leans more towards a complete PC utilize rather than just CPU/GPU monitoring. Using Speccy allows you to not only monitor the temperatures of your hardware but it also gives you a thorough rundown of the PC’s hardware specifications.

For those looking to sell their PC, this could be a great way to display what your PC has from a hardware standpoint. Furthermore, with a great visual display, it’s easy to read temps whenever you’re monitoring your CPU/GPU.


#6) NZXT CAM Software

NZXT CAM is free software for PC monitoring. This fast and efficient solution will let you control every aspect of the computer. It will give you detailed information about your computer from the processor load to bandwidth consumption.


  • NZXT CAM will provide information on applications that are making the use of every part of the machine.
  • It can perform In-Game monitoring for current FPS, CPU/GPU temperatures, time played, battery level, CPU/GPU load, etc.

Verdict: NZXT Cam is a complete PC monitoring solution. It is easy to use. CAM supported NZXT RGB products are AER Fan, Lighting Strip, Cable Comb, etc.


Price: NZXT CAM software is available for free.


Thank You


GTA Trilogy’s following huge fix

Rockstar’s next Title Update for Grand Theft Auto: The Trilogy – The Definitive Edition looks to address a huge list of issues with the buggy remasters.

The game has had a rough launch, and many of the fixes appear to clean up some of the more meme-worthy problems with the games. A lot of the fixes are about rain. Many spelling errors have apparently been fixed. I spotted two fixes for “a hole in the game world” in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City – The Definitive Edition. There are also two fixes for CJ’s face obscuring the camera in Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas – The Definitive Edition, which (sadly) may address the absolutely incredible bug shown in this video:


The patch also brings “stability improvements,” fixes some textures, and adds a cinematic camera mode. You can read the full list of fixes for Title Update 1.03 on Rockstar’s website. Rockstar says the update is now available on PS4, PS5, Xbox Series X / S, Xbox One, and PC and that it will be available for the Nintendo Switch “in the coming days.”

Rockstar apologized for the rocky launch a little over a week after the game’s November 11th release date. “The updated versions of these classic games did not launch in a state that meets our own standards of quality, or the standards our fans have come to expect,” the company said. “We have ongoing plans to address the technical issues and to improve each game going forward.”


System Requirements

OS: Windows 10 64-bit
Processor: Intelregistered Coretm i5-6600K / AMD FX-6300
Memory: 8GB
Graphics: Nvidia GeForce GTX 760 2GB / AMD Radeon R9 280 3GB
Disk: 45GB

OS: Windows 10 64-bit
Processor: Intelregistered Coretm i7-2700K / AMD Ryzen 5 2600
Memory: 16GB
Graphics: Nvidia GeForce GTX 970 4GB / AMD Radeon RX 570 4GB
Disk: 45GB

Install Instructions

You need to own the game first! (BUY)

- Download This Torrent
- Open Rockstar Game Launcher
- Select install Now
- Select the location where you've downloaded the torrent.
- Then wait for the launcher to verify the files and you're good to go




CCNA2 Chapter 1
Course - 12 Jan-2021


Exploring the Network

§Explain how multiple networks are used in everyday life.

§Explain the topologies and devices used in a small to medium-sized
business network.

§Explain the basic characteristics of a network that supports
communication in a small to medium-sized business.

§Explain trends in networking that will affect the use of networks in
small to medium-sized businesses.
Thank you
Chapter 2 will be soon